Simple Physiology of Development of Ovarian Cysts
Follicle cysts are the most common simple cysts of ovaries. Patients who read similar articles online commonly tell me that they do not understand how these cysts develop and what the difference between them is. I will try to tell it as simple and plain as I can. At least I owe that to my patients 🙂
Eggs of female humans develop in a cystic formation. This formation is called FOLLICLE. During ovulation, in perfect woman who has a menstruation bleeding once in each 28 days(I call perfect because only %12 of women has menstruation once in 28 days while others always live a few days of setback), approximately on the 14th day follicle is torn and the egg-in Latin ovum- is thrown into the abdomen. This egg is caught by the fimbria, a broom-like formation, and taken inside the tubes. If there is a lucky sperm nearby by that time, fertilization occurs and the journey to happiness begins. Let this journey be the subject of another article, but if there is no sperm it disappears in 48 hours. Torn follicle prepares itself as if there will be a pregnancy, and forms a formation filled with yellow colored cells which is called “corpus luteum”. Its duty is to produce high amounts of PROGESTERONE. Progesterone is a Latin word but it gave life to the words “protection gestation”. This hormone protects pregnancy. If there is pregnancy occurs, corpus luteum secretes progesterone until the 10th week. Later, this function will be made by placenta of the fetus (name of embryo after 10th week).
Now let’s get the important point: Although pregnancy and childbirth is considered as a miracle, I think actual miracle is being able to have menstruation in an order. In order to have ovulation on the 14th day of ovulation, too many biochemical factor and that much hormone must work in harmony and catch a synchronization, which you cannot find in any other physiological process or organ in the nature. Here, many external and internal factors (such as hormones or drugs) affects the system. Thus only %12 of women can have a regular menstruation once in every 28 days. Setbacks of this process affect the development and tearing of the follicle. Untorn follicles result in follicle cysts while problems that occur after ovulation cause corpus luteum cysts. The reason why these cysts cause some clinical symptoms is that they are hormonally active cysts.